Stem Cell–Associated Proteins Can Identify Origins of Pediatric Tumors

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Research has indicated that certain sarcomas come from the mesenchymal stem cells. However, expression of neural stem cells has been noted in others. Identifying and isolating mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells relies on finding specific proteins expressed by both types.

In this study, eight different markers representing proteins associated with these two types of stem cells were applied to the 81 tumors. Through cluster analysis, the researchers organized the data into groups showing similar patterns. Two major subgroups of pediatric sarcomas emerged

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Pediatric undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas (USTSs) are a group of malignancies composed predominantly of primitive round cell sarcomas, the histogenesis of which is uncertain. Thus, diagnosis and therapy remain a challenge.

The aims of the current study were to determine whether differential expression of stem cell–associated proteins could be used to aid in determining the histogenesis of pediatric USTSs and to determine whether pediatric USTSs expressed a unique panel of stem cell–associated proteins to aid diagnosis.

Tumors included 28 Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ESs), 22 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (ERMSs), 8 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMSs), 5 synovial sarcomas (SSs), 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), and 13 USTSs. Stem cell antibodies included 3 mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD44, CD105, and CD166) and 5 neural stem cell markers (CD15, CD29, CD56, CD133, and nestin).

Sections were scored followed by statistical analysis, clustering analysis, and visualizations using Partek Genomic Suite Software. The Euclidean clustering divided the tumors into 2 major groups. ESs and USTSs formed the majority of the 1st group, whereas ERMSs, ARMSs, MPNSTs, and SSs formed the 2nd group.

Reduced expression of CD56 was strongly associated with the ES/USTS cluster (P < 0.0001). ESs and USTSs were further separated by CD166 staining, wherein increased expression was associated with ES (P < 0.0001).

The 2nd group included the majority of other sarcomas, with no consistent separation between subtypes. The current study demonstrates the usefulness of applying stem cell markers to pediatric sarcomas and indicates that USTSs and ESs are closely related and may share a common histogenesis.

from http://www.pedpath.org/doi/abs/10.2350/10-08-0890-OA.1  ,
http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/582727/?sc=rsmn

 

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