Monash University researchers are shedding light on the complex processes that underpin the creation and differentiation of stem cells, bringing closer the promise of ‘miracle’ therapies.
Dr Jose Polo of the Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute (ARMI) and the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology and his team, with collaborators at Harvard, have comprehensively mapped, for the first time, the process by which mature cells are re-programmed to become an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell.
iPS cells behave almost exactly like embryonic stem cells – they can become any cell in the body – but come without the ethical and scientific pitfalls.
Scientists and transplant clinicians at the Ansary Stem Cell Institute at Weill Cornell Medical College and the Center for Cell Engineering at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center have been awarded a $15.7 million, four-year research grant from the New York State Stem Cell Science Program (NYSTEM).
The scientists will translate their approach to manipulate hematopoietic stem cells to cure acquired and inherited blood disorders. For many patients with such blood diseases, including sickle cell disease, the only hope for a cure requires transplanting normal blood stem cells.
But in many instances suitable blood stem cells cannot be found or there are
Each one of us receives approximately 60 new mutations in our genome from our parents.
This striking value is reported in the first-ever direct measure of new mutations coming from mother and father in whole human genomes published today.
For the first time, researchers have been able to answer the questions: how many new mutations does a child have and did most of them come from mum or dad? The researchers measured directly the numbers of mutations in two families, using whole genome sequences from the 1000 Genomes Project. The results also reveal that human genomes, like all genomes, are changed
Tweaking the levels of factors used during the reprogramming of adult cells into induced pluriopotent stem (iPS) cells greatly affects the quality of the resulting iPS cells, according to Whitehead Institute researchers.
“This conclusion is something that I think is very surprising or unexpected—that the levels of these reprogramming factors determine the quality of the iPS cells,” says Whitehead Founding Member Rudolf Jaenisch. “We never thought they’d make a difference, but they do.”
An article describing this work is published in the December 2 issue of Cell Stem Cell.
“This conclusion is something that I think is very surprising or unexpected—that the
And now there are three: in the wake of announcements from laboratories in Oregon and California that they had created human embryos by cloning cells of living people, a lab in New York announced on Monday that it had done that and more.
In addition to cloning the cells of a woman with diabetes, producing embryos and stem cells that are her perfect genetic matches, scientists got the stem cells to differentiate into cells able to secrete insulin.
That raised hopes for realizing a long-held dream of stem cell research, namely, creating patient-specific replacement cells for people with diabetes, Parkinson’s disease,